#5: Usually you can ask for a period, but if too many employees want time off the same period, the employer gets to decide who gets it. Since you have a legal right to X consecutive weeks during an Y month period, you always get a long summer vacation, if you want to, but perhaps not the exact weeks you want. This seldom is a big problem in my experience.
#4 If you are working full-time hours (35 hours per week) you are entitled to 28 days paid leave a year. However, these may include national holidays (Christmas and bank holidays) and there is no stipulation which means you can take them off all at once.
Although, unlike Sweden, you have these rights from the day of employment rather than waiting a year.